Representing Robot Pose: The good, the bad, and the ugly.

I was at ICRA last week and I had the pleasure to talk at the workshop entitled "What Sucks in Robotics and How to Fix It: Lessons Learned from Building Complex Systems" organized by Gian Diego Tipaldi and Cyrill Stachniss. This was a truly exceptional event where people showed up to talk honestly and challenge each other about robotics as a science and an engineering discipline.

My presentation was called "Representing Robot Pose: The good, the bad, and the ugly", where I tried to give some basic recommendations on how to talk about, write about, and code with representations of robot attitude and pose. I have seen many hours of productive time lost within my lab when students were trying to interface an open source package or process a dataset where the notion of robot pose was not clear enough to implement it correctly without trial and error (and pain and misery and suffering). 

Here are the slides from the talk. To make everything easily accessible, I've written a brief overview below. Please let me know if anything is unclear of if you find typos!


A large part of the practice of robotics is fundamentally about developing machines that can perceive and interact with the real physical world. And for that, we need to talk about, write about, write computer programs that represent robot poses. For the most part, we are extremely bad at this. There are hundreds of ways of turning a handful of scalars into a transformation matrix and, unless we are extremely clear about how to do this and how the result can be applied, we are condemning each other to wasted time and effort experimenting with the different possibilities until we find the one that fits. Rather than get in to religious discussions about which representation is correct, I propose a minimum amount of documentation to avoid ambiguity. 

My goal in writing this is to convince you to go back to your documentation, papers, datasets, and open-source software to update the text so that the interpretation of the frame transformations is completely unambiguous to the user. Said another way, I would like you to help me reduce the amount of suffering in the world. There are many, many interesting problems that we still need to solve in robotics, and it pains me to see students and engineers losing days struggling with basics that can be avoided with some simple clear documentation.

I will use the notation that we have proposed for our software library "Kindr". We traced this notation back to the book "Elastic Multibody Dynamics -- A Direct Ritz Approach" by H. Bremer. I'll try to find time to make another post about notation that covers the major styles used in robotics.

1. Always provide a frame diagram

Any documentation about frame transformations is reliant on a good frame diagram that shows how the frames are placed on the robot. I follow the convention that the frames are colored with x=red, y=green, and z=blue. If you don't provide a frame diagram, it will be completely unclear to anyone how those frames are situated on the robot. Look at this wikipedia page for a selection of the widely varying conventions for terrestrial and aerospace vehicles.

2. When discussing vectors, be clear about what vectors you are providing

Al Kelly's tech report on wheeled kinematics is a good introduction to why you need three elements of decoration to clearly specify the coordinates of a vector quantity. Here's a pictorial cheat sheet:

I find that many people are not convinced that we always need three pieces of decoration. I think angular velocity is a good motivator:

These kinds of terms actually come up when computing the equations for wheeled or manipulator kinematics and it ends up extremely useful to have notation expressive enough to be able to write them down succinctly.

3. When discussing orientation, be very clear about what orientation you are providing

There are two big points to consider here. First, make sure you specify how to go from whatever scalars you provide to a full rotation matrix. Second, clearly specify which rotation matrix this is (world-to-body, or body-to-world, for example). This will be most clear if you provide some text like this:

It is also good to include some suggested phrases in your documentation and use these phrases throughout your work. Here is a pictorial cheat sheet with some suggested phrases. Note that there is no agreement on these phrases across robotics so please don't expect that other people use them the way that I do!

4. When discussing pose, be very clear about what pose you are providing

This advice will be almost exactly the same as what I gave for rotation matrices above. Again, there are two big points to consider. First, make sure you specify how to go from whatever scalars you provide to a full transformation matrix. Second, clearly specify which transformation matrix this is. Here is my suggested text:

I've again included some suggested phrases in the pictorial example. 

I have a few more notes for this example.

  1. Once again, there is no agreement on these phrases so please don't assume that people use them the same way.
  2. I've introduced simplified notation for points with only one left subscript. If your paper or dataset is just dealing with points and poses, this can simplify the notation greatly.
  3. Since my PhD thesis, I have used homogeneous coordinates to represent points. To disambiguate between homogeneous coordinates (4x1) and Euclidean coordinates (3x1), I use a different font; homogeneous are bold italics and Euclidean are bold upright.

5. If it is not 100% clear, have fear. Use a 3D plotting tool to check your guess

Most times it will not be totally clear how to go from the scalars provided to a transformation matrix. If you are not 100% sure of the answer, the least painful thing to do is to fire up your favorite 3D plotting tool and plot the answers until things look right. Then write the author and explain to them what documentation you would have needed to get it right without guesswork.

Suggestions for coding style

At the autonomous systems lab, we try to transfer the notation you see above directly into code so that it is clear when multiple people work on the same function.

The important points are:

  1. Defining a standard notation in code for transformation matrices, points, and vectors.
  2. Commenting each function or class with the list of coordinate frames used.
  3. adopting some notation for time indices. Here I have used "kp1" for k+1 and "km1" for k-1.

Great! Please leave me any comments or questions below.

Introducing the Autonomous Mobile Robotics MOOC

I'm helping organize a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) through the edx platform. The course is called Autonomous Mobile Robotics (ETHx AMRx) and it will run in parallel with the course we are teaching at ETH Zurich this winter. Other lecturers in the course are Martin Rufli (IBM Research), Margarita Chli (University of Edinburgh), Davide Scaramuzza (University of Zurich), Marco Hutter (ETH Zurich), and, our course leader, Roland Siegwart. The video introducing the course is below. Enjoy!

Talks at IROS

I'm off to IROS where I will give two talks. On November 3rd, I will participate in the workshop titled From Remotely-Controlled to Autonomous Collaborative Robots. I'll present some of the work developed by Martin Rufli and Javier Alonso Mora about collision avoidance for decision-making agents. 

On Monday, November 4th, I will present my work on temporal calibration for multi-sensor systems. (MoCT7 Regular Session, Room701,  15:15-15:30, Paper MoCT7.1) . I'm excited about this work and we are planning to package it up and release a toolbox for the extrinsic calibration of cameras and IMUs. Stay tuned for more news about that.